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Art Curriculum


by Rhea Sprecher B.S. Ed., M. Ed.

In Cooperation With The Students

of Hales Corners Lutheran School Hales Corners,

Wisconsin 1978 by Rhea Sprecher

Edited by Dr. Elizabeth Klein 2005

The Contents . . .

Why Art Education?

For the Home Educator

How to Use

Modern Art Terms

Artists to Know

Art Appreciation Art Supplies Color

Art Smock Art Recipes

Art Projects

Abstract Halloween MaskContest Pop-Art
Assemblage Minimal Art Printing
Chalk Mobile Sculpture
Clay Mosaic Silkscreen
Collage Mural Soft Sculpture
Constructivism New Realism Still-Life
Crayon Op-Art Surrealism
Dada Paint Texture
Design Paper Making Tissue
Drawing Photography Valentine Box Contest
Expressionism Pointillism Weaving
Fantasy   Wire Sculpture


Why Art Education?
Art is necessary for the full mental and social development of the child.
Art is an integral part of education and life. Art education has become recognized as a field, which contributes richly to the total learning experience of the child. Without art, and an art teacher to guide children's experiences, no school curriculum is complete. (Conant and Randall, 1962, p.24)
Art enhances learning and gives life to all the senses.

Properly taught, the arts are basic to individual development since they more than any other subject awaken all the senses — the learning pores. We endorse a curriculum which puts `basics' first, because the arts are basic, right at the heart of the matter, we suggest not that reading be replaced by art but that the concept of literacy be expanded beyond word skills. (Rockefeller, 1977, p. 6)

Effective teachers need to have background and understanding of art education. Some teachers see the need art education, but seemingly feel uncomfortable or improperly prepared to teach art. Some parents and teach behave as if art is unimportant and often teach it whenever there is extra time and by anyone who volunteers. This is a dangerous practice, because the untrained teacher's methods and goals may be improperly motivated.

"Educators sometimes, unknowingly, teach art harmfully, `Craft Kits' and similar activities are not
creative and are contrary to the aims of art education." (Conant and Randall, 1963, p. 29)
Though art teachers are the persons primarily responsible for the teaching of art, many others also teach art, though often indirectly, occasionally unsatisfactorily, and some harmfully. Art education is also provided by the environment in which people live, work, attend school, play, and worship. In order to overcome the frequently negative influences exerted by unqualified people and aesthetically poor environments, art teachers need to possess great skill and energy. (Conant, 1964, p. 44)

For the Home Educator

The curriculum is written in an easy-to-follow, practical and attractive format. The instructions are brief and to the point. The pictures are clear examples of the finished product. The materials suggested are just that, suggestions. Use whatever works for you or whatever you discover works better. Whenever watercolors or temperas are suggested a paintbrush is not mentioned as it is assumed that a paintbrush is included with the paint sets.

The art projects in the curriculum are suited to any age level with some or very little adjustment.

How To Use
Under the heading — Sculpture — you will find a project which says:

Materials: Aluminum foil Process: Make an object with foil

You will give the child the foil and ask him to make an animal, flower, car or whatever he wants out of the foil. Very little has to be said by you because it is the child's problem and he will want to solve it his way. You supply orsuggest the materials, present the pronlem to be solved, then stand back and let the creative process take place.

Modern Art Terms
An art which deliberately abandons representations of natural objects and depends solely on the visual pattern or structure of the work itself .. .
Found Art-Junk Sculpture — Built-up form of sculpture neither carved nor molded, out of ready-mades, found objects which are reassembled by the artist in a new context .. .
Assembled or constructed out of wood, metal, paper, or glass, not carved or molded .. .
Post WWI frame of mind, not a style — Group who wanted to destroy ruling moral and social values — Name, Dada, chosen by opening dictionary and choosing the first word the eye fell on — From this they adopted "law of accident" — Nonsensical, ant artistic, absurd guiding principles — Used "ready-made" ..
A tendency in the art of any period which releases the artist from academic rules — Expression of the inner states-terror, fear, anguish, hate, or religious awe .. .
Exploration of the irrational and the fantastic . . .
Revolt against tradition — Shows motion — Used movement and spirit of modern technology. Italy,1909.. .
Minimal Art
Pieces based on simple geometric forms — Concerned with basic structures and with unelaborate constructions .. .
Free-moving, hanging constructions .. .
Stress on "perceptual abstraction" — As the eye is exposed to a variety of regular or irregular patterns of brightly colored bands, spots, or dots that produce visions which seem to move and change as the eye perceives them — Based on immediate response of eye to color and form — Totally abstract — No experience needed on part of viewer —Geometric forms — meticulous and impersonal — all trace of the stroke erased -- Eye must blend colors at a certain distance.. .
A method of obtaining secondary colors through the use of dots in primary colors which are so close on the canvas they mix at a certain distance in the viewer's eye -- Purity greater than if mixed on palette .
New Realism — Disrupts fine line between art and life— Artists borrow from everyday commercial world - Tendency of painters to return for inspiration to the world of tangible objects as a reaction against abstraction of all kinds .. .
Soft Sculpture
Constructions made with fabric — Vinyl, canvas, etc... .
Mysterious and irrational subject matter — Dream-state — Subconscious .


Artists to Know
When teaching modern art forms, refer to the artist that best represents the art form.
AbstractKasimir Malevich (1878-1935) Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)
AssemblageJoseph Cornell (1903-1973) John Chamberlain (1927- )
ConstructivismVladimir Tatlin (1895-1956) Naum Gabo (1890-1977) Alexander Calder (1898-1976) (Mobiles)
DadaJean (Hans) Arp (1887-1966) Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)
Expressionism - Franz Marc (1880-1916) — Post-ImpressionismVincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938)Emil Nolde (1867-1956)
Fantasy — Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) Paul Klee (1878-1940) Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920)
Marc Chagall (1889-1985)
FuturismUmberto Boccioni (1882-1916)
Minimal ArtAnthony Caro (1924- ) Philip King (1934- ) William Tucker (1935- )
Op-ArtVictor Vasarely (1908-1997)
PointillismGeorges Seurat (1859-1891)
Pop-ArtRoy Lichtenstein (1923-1997) George Segal (1926-2000 ) Andy Warhol (1930-1987)
Soft Sculpture — Claes Oldenburg (1929- )
SurrealismJean Miro (1893-1983) Rene Magritte (1898-1967) Salvador Dali (1904-1989)

Art Supplies

Construction paper
Art Tissue
Manila paper
Optional Printing ink
India ink
Clay (moist)
Lineoleum cutting tools Linoleum block

White Glue
Water color set or
Tempera set
7" Scissors
Chalk (colored) or
Oil pastels
Fine line felt tip pens
(Black or primary colors) Sketch pad
Newspapers Wood scraps Unused office paper
Cardboard boxes
Fabric scraps Yarn
Baby food jars Margarine bowls, etc.
American paper and packaging ad

Art Recipes
White Glue & Water Solution: 1 Part Glue 1 Part Water
Should be a milky, watery consistancy
Dry Chalk:
Use colored chalk as it is on paper. Spray with fixative (hair spray can be used) to prevent smearing.
Wet Chalk: Wet paper with chalk or dip chalk in water. Colors will be brighter and adhere to paper with less smearing.

Art Appreciation
"A Visit to the Art Center"

Click for larger picture

Smock for Art
A very effective smock is one which covers from neck to ankle — Old, black choir robes are very good because paint does not soak through the thick material.

Click for larger picture


Materials: Tempra, water, palette

Process: Mix colers on palette using primary colors (red, blue, yellow) to make

Secondary colors      
Orange= yellow+red
yellow organge
red orange
Purple= Blue+red
red violet
blue violet
blue green
yellow green

Click for larger picture

1. Conant, Howard. Art Education. Washington D.C., 1964.
2. Conant, Howard and Arne Randall. Art in Education. New York, 1963.
3. Ecker, David W. and Elliot W. Eisner. Readings in Art Education. Waltham, Massachusetts, 1966.
4. Munro, Thomas. Art Education: Its Philosophy and Psychology. New York, 1956.
5. Pappas, George. Concepts in Art and Education. London, 1970.
6. Rockefeller, David Jr., Chairman. Coming to our Senses: The Significance of the Arts for American Education. Heightstown, New Jersey, 1988.
7. Ziegfeld, Edwin, (ed.). Education and Art: A Symposium. Switzerland, 1953.
1. Arnason, H.H. History of Modern Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1977.
2. Boeve, Edgar. Children's Art and the Christian Teacher. St. Louis, 1966.
3. D'Arnico, Victor. Assemblage. New York, 1972.
4. Jensen, Thea. Play With Paper. New York, 1962.
5. Laliberte, Norman and Richey Kehl. 100 & 100 Involving Art Ideas. New York, 1969.
6. Meilach, Dona Z. Papercraft. New York, 1980.
7. Tempera Techniques Dover Publications (June 1, 1936)
8. Rottger, Ernst, Dieter Klante, and Friedrich Salzman. Surfaces in Creative Drawing, New York, 1968.
9. Rottger, Ernst. Creative Paper Design. New York, 1960.
10. Saunders, Everett. Constructing. Racine, Wisconsin, 1960.
PERIODICALS — Arts and Activities 1966-1972
School Arts 1967-1978

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